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March 23, 2012 / A

End 1.1

As I expected, it took only a day to reacquaint myself with 1.1. By grouping rules into blocks of 10, I can also recall any numbered rule at will (although the lookup takes some time). So if you ask me, for example, what rule 1.1.47 is, I can tell you that it’s मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः (“Terms with the anubandha म् are inserted after the last vowel of a word.”) But first I have to recall अव्ययीभावश्च (The अव्ययीभाव is an अव्यय (“indeclinable”)), which is rule 1.1.41, and work my way forward. It’s not optimal, but it’s quite the party trick!

Of course, this knowledge isn’t yet quite firm. I’m liable to forget it again, unless I keep reviewing. But for the time being I have a working mental copy of the first chapter.

Up next is 1.2, which will be similarly easy. I have read 1.3 and 1.4, but I did not get far into memorizing them. After those chapters come books 2 through 8, which I haven’t read at all. Then things will start to get more interesting.

Number of rules: 75

Shortest rule:

1.1.13 शे
(Words ending in the affix) शे (are exempt from sandhi changes.)
1.1.15 ओत्
(Particles ending in the vowel) ओ (are exempt from sandhi changes.)

Longest Rule:

1.1.58 न पदान्तद्विर्वचनवरेयलोपस्वरसवर्णानुस्वारदीर्घजश्चर्विधिषु
(न पदान्त-द्विर्वचन-वरेयलोप-स्वर-सवर्ण-अनुस्वार-दीर्घ-जश्-चर्-विधिषु)
(A substitute is treated like what it replaced except for) in rules concerning the end of a pada, the doubling of consonants, the deletion of य before the suffix वर, accent, phonological homonegeity, the अनुस्वार, the lengthening of vowels, the use of a जश् consonant (ग ज ड द ब), or the use of a चर् consonant (क च ट त प श ष स).

Five important rules:

1.1.49 षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा
The genitive case implicitly appears with स्थाने (“in the place of”; thus इकः (स्थाने), “in place of इक्”)

1.1.66 तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य
The locative specifies what follows the substitution.

1.1.67 तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य
The ablative specifies what precedes (the substitution).

1.1.70 तपरस्तत्कालस्य
A sound followed by त् stands for as much time as stated. (Thus अत् = अ and आत् = आ, but अ = both अ and आ.)

1.1.71 आदिरन्त्येन सहेता
A letter joined with an anubandha stands for itself and all the letters in between. (This defines a प्रत्याहार.)

The five rules mentioned above are all “explanatory” rules, or परिभाषा rules. These rules are intended for users of the text — that is, me and (I hope) you too. For the most part, they explain the features of Panini’s linguistic system and how to interpret its unusual parts. Bizarrely, the most useful rules — those defining what the अनुबन्ध letters actually are and describing how they work within the grammar — do not appear until the third chapter.

Thus we have seen four types of rules so far:

  • Definitions (संज्ञा)
  • Regular rules (विधि)
  • Prohibitions (नियम)
  • Interpretive guidelines (परिभाषा)

In the next chapter a few rules of analogy (अतिदेश) will appear. We should also see a governing rule (अधिकार) soon, although I cannot recall when.

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