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March 27, 2012 / A

End 1.3

Although I did have some time to devote to memorizing this chapter, I didn’t think it would happen so soon! I was only familiar with 1.3 up to rule 21 or so. I had read over the other rules a year ago but had made no effort to recall them. As before, I can do a numeric lookup for any rule in the chapter.

The many rules of आत्मनेपद were not as excruciating as I thought they would be. The major challenge was in fixing the order of the roots. But with the help of some mnemonic devices I was able to proceed.

My knowledge of this chapter is about as firm as for chapter 1.2. But I have to trust that these things will solidify over time.

Facts and tidbits

Number of rules

93, for a total of 241 so far.

Shortest rule:

1.3.7 चुटू
च, छ, ज, झ, ञ, ट, ठ्, ड, ढ, and ण (are indicatory letters when at the beginning of a suffix.)

Longest rule:

1.3.32 गन्धनावक्षेपनसेवनसाहसिक्यप्रतियत्नप्रकथनोपयोगेषु कृञः
कृ (is always आत्मनेपद) in the senses of  derision, threats, service, violent action, requital, announcing, or resolving upon something.

Five important rules:

1.3.9 तस्य लोपः
(All indicatory letters are) replaced with nothing (i.e., they are deleted).
1.3.12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम्
Roots marked with ङ् or the अनुदात्त accent use आत्मनेपद endings
1.3.62 पूर्ववत्सनः
The desiderative (takes the voice) of its former (non-desiderative form).
1.3.72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले
Roots marked with ञ or the स्वरित accent use आत्मनेपद endings in the sense of self-benefit.
1.3.90 वा क्यषः
Denominative verbs are preferably (not परस्मैपद, i.e. they are preferably आत्मनेपद).

1.3.9 emphasizes that the technical expressions of the Ashtadhyayi do not have meaning outside of it. All indicatory letters are deleted, yielding a clean Sanskrit expression with no evidence of its origin.

1.3.12 and 1.3.72 define the indicatory letters ङ and ञ. Thus डुकृञ् (कृ with indicatory डु and ञ्), by inference, is known to be a परस्मैपद root that takes आत्मनेपद endings in the etymological sense of आत्मनेपद (आत्मने = for the self).

1.3.62 shows an interesting connection between the regular and desiderative forms of a verb. The causative uses आत्मनेपद and परस्मैपद in a more complex way. 1.3.67, for instance, specifies that आत्मनेपद makes a verb reflexive, as in दर्शयते “he displays (himself)”.

1.3.90 is a simple rule, but it explains why almost all denominative verbs in Sanskrit use आत्मनेपद endings.

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