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March 28, 2012 / A

End 1.4

Exhausting. I had some time today to dedicate to chapter 1.4, and with a bit of luck and perseverance I was able to see it through. It took me about 20 minutes to recall its 110 rules; ideally, this should take less than 3. But I can only hope that I will know this chapter better over time.

It has yet to sink in that I am done with the first book of the Ashtadhyayi. Because this text has not been divided into chapters evenly, book 1 contains less than a tenth of the text’s rules. But since book 1 concerns itself primarily with definitions, the next book should have much more to offer about Sanskrit’s behavior.


For अपादान

See the post on the semantics of Sanskrit nouns.

For संप्रदान

Delighted (रुच्यर्थानां प्रीयमानः), I praise (श्लाघह्नुङ्स्थाशपां ज्ञीप्स्यमानः) the landlord (धारेरुत्तमर्णः): who desires (स्पृहेरीप्सितः) his angry (क्रुधद्रुहेर्ष्यासूयार्थानां यं प्रति कोपः) wife, who with her children (i.e. verb prefixes: क्रुधद्रुहयोरुपसृष्टयोः कर्म) goes to the astrologer (राधीक्ष्योर्यस्य विप्रश्नः) to hear (प्रत्याङ्भ्यां श्रुवः पूर्वस्य कर्ता) words to urge him on (अनुप्रतिगृणश्च).

For गति

To keep the order straight, I made a crude chant using the first letter of each rule:

ऊ अ आ , भू अ क पु अ अ अ
uu a aa, bhuu a ka pu a a a

Surprisingly, this was enough.

Facts and tidbits

Number of rules

110, for a total of 351 so far.

Shortest rule:

1.4.15 नः क्ये
(Words) ending in न् and followed by क्य (i.e., one of the three denominative suffixes) (are called पद).
1.4.87 हीने
(अनु is classified as कर्मप्रवचीय) in the sense of “lower” or “inferior.”
1.4.103 सुपः
(The division of suffixes into singular, dual, and plural applies for the) noun suffixes (as well.)

Longest rule:

1.4.52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणिकर्ता स णौ
Verbs implying motion, perception, or eating — as well as verbs whose object is a word implying some sort of sound and intransitive verbs — all have their non-causative कर्तृ changed to कर्मन् in the causative.

Five important rules:

1.4.14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम्
Things ending in noun suffixes (सुप्) or verb suffixes (तिङ्) are called पद (“completed words”).
1.4.51 अकथितं च
All other verbal roles (are called कर्मन्).
1.4.80 ते प्राग्धातोः
(उपसर्ग and गति prefixes) are added before the root.
1.4.99 लः परस्मैपदम्
The ल affixes (e.g. लट्, for the present indicative) are called परस्मैपद.
1.4.100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्
The तङ् affixes and the suffix आन (सानच् and कानच् , the two present participle affixes) are called आत्मनेपद.


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