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July 23, 2013 / A


There are few things more humbling than forgetting a group of rules, especially one that endured for a long time. Somehow the sounds and contours they summon to the mind evaporate to high heaven — or worse, perhaps, some shards of them all still remain, as incontrovertible reminder that I had once bolted them to the Sanskritic part of my mind and body.

Yet in such a task as this, with a beguiling horizon that inches ever nearer, there is no choice but to endure. And so it’s been these past few weeks, with block after block slipping through my mind’s grasp and rolling back down to the start.

For a moment I’d like to dwell on one of these blocks and diagnose the things that make it so slippery to grasp.

3.3.151 – 3.3.160

The block is as follows:

3.3.151 शेषे लृडयदौ
3.3.152 उताप्योः समर्थयोर्लिङ्
3.3.153 कामप्रवेदनेऽकच्चिति
3.3.154 सम्भवानेऽलमिति चेत् सिद्धाप्रयोगे
3.3.155 विभाषा धातौ सम्भावनवचनेऽयदि
3.3.156 हेतुहेतुमतोर्लिङ्
3.3.157 इच्छार्थेषु लिङ्लोटौ
3.3.158 समानकर्तृकेषु तुमुन्
3.3.159 लिङ् च
3.3.160 इच्छार्थेभ्यो विभाषा वर्तमाने

So far the following stands out:

  • I hardly know what any of these rules mean anymore.
  • I confuse these rules with other similar rules (e.g. लिङ् यदि).
  • I confuse certain rules with rules that feature similar terms (e.g. तुमुन्).
  • These rules are about relatively minor grammatical points.

So let me go through them slowly below.

The rules


3.3.151 शेषे लृडयदौ
ऌट् is used with words other than यच्च, यत्र, and यदि to denote astonishment.

Astonishment (चित्रीकरण) comes from 3.3.150. This rule expands the scope of the future tense (ऌट्). An example:

आश्चर्यं चित्रम् अद्भुतम् अन्धो नाम पर्वतम् आरोक्ष्यति, बधिरो नाम व्याकरणम् अध्येष्यते
Astonishing indeed, that a blind man will climb the mountain, that a deaf one will study grammar.


3.3.152 उताप्योः समर्थयोर्लिङ्
लिङ् is used along with उत and अपि in the sense those two words share.

This is a weird little rule, and weirdly phrased, that allows लिङ् when used with an affirmative word. Thus उत कुर्यात् “yes, he may do it.”


3.3.153 कामप्रवेदनेऽकच्चिति
लिङ् is also used with words that indicate an expression of desire, except for कच्चित्.

Thus कामो मे भुञ्जीत भवान् “It’s my wish that you eat.”

As an aside, I’m surprised to see that I’ve been memorizing this rule incorrectly, having read कच्चित् instead of the correct कच्चिति.


3.3.154 सम्भवानेऽलमिति चेत् सिद्धाप्रयोगे
लिङ् is used in the sense of possibility/expectation if अलम् is expressed implicitly.

The Kashika has three examples:

  • अपि पर्वतं शिरसा भिन्द्यात् “It’s expected that he’ll break the mountain with his head.” सम्भावन is expressed, as is the sense of अलम्.
  • विदेशस्तायी देवत्तः प्रायेण गमिष्यति ग्रामम् It’s expected that Devadatta, who’s living away, will eventually return to the village.” सम्भावन is expressed, but अलम् is not present.
  • अलं देवदत्तो हस्तिनं हनिष्यति “Devadatta can kill the elephant.” सम्भावन is expressed, but the sense of अलम् is implicit.


3.3.155 विभाषा धातौ सम्भावनवचनेऽयदि
But preferably not when used with a root expressing the sense of सम्भावन, as long as यद् is not used.

Such roots include सम्भावि (causative) and अवकल्पि (causative).


3.3.156 हेतुहेतुमतोर्लिङ्
And preferably not when cause and effect are denoted.

Thus दक्षिणेन चेद् यायात् / यास्यति न शकटं पर्याभवेत् / पर्याभविष्यति “If he goes on the right side, the cart won’t overturn.”


3.3.157 इच्छार्थेषु लिङ्लोटौ
With words denoting a wish/desire, लिङ् or लोट् are used.

लोट् is the command form, as in भवतु, विजयताम्, लभस्व, and so on. This rule sets up the following:


3.3.158 समानकर्तृकेषु तुमुन्
When used with a word denoting the same agent (and that also denotes a wish/desire), तुमुन् can be used too.

Thus इच्छति भोक्तुम् “He wants to eat.”


3.3.159 लिङ् च
लिङ् is used this way as well.

I confuse this with the similar rule लिङ् यदि, which has nearly the same meaning. I guess I’ll just have to my best here. Maybe I can connect च with the च्छ् of इच्छा in the rules above and below.


3.3.160 इच्छार्थेभ्यो विभाषा वर्तमाने
And preferably not after roots that denote a desire/wish when they express the present tense.

Thus इच्छति is preferred over इच्छेत्. इच्छति comes from 3.2.123 वर्तमाने लट्.


I think these rules might sit a little more firmly than before. I’ve forgotten them countless times already, but perhaps next time I might have enough dexterity to restrain them.

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